"Die Gewerkschaften in Japan" (The Japanese Trade Unions) Monat, Jahr: November 2012

The organisational sophistication of Japanese trade unions has been in notable decline since the 1960s. Especially the growing number of workers in precarious employment is hardly organised in unions. This paper analyses legislation that affects trade unions, as well as organisational patterns on the firm- and sector-/national-level.

Erst 1989 wurde mit RENGO (Nippon Sōrōdō Kumiai Sōrengō Kai, Japanese Trade Union Confederation/JTUC-RENGO) in Japan ein einflussreicher, nationaler Gewerkschafts-Dachverband gegründet. RENGO hat heute 6,9 Millionen Mitglieder und den deutlich höchsten Organisationsgrad unter den japanischen Gewerkschaftsorganisationen. Der Organisationsgrad der japanischen Gewerkschaften sinkt seit den 1960er Jahren kontinuierlich. Vor allem die zunehmende Zahl von Arbeitnehmern in prekären Beschäftigungsverhältnissen (inzwischen mehr als 30 Prozent der Arbeitnehmerschaft) ist kaum gewerkschaftlich organisiert.

Die die Gewerkschaften betreffenden Gesetze garantieren das Koalitionsrecht, das Recht auf Abschlüsse von Tarifverträgen sowie das Streikrecht. Streiks werden in erster Linie auf Betriebsebene von den Betriebsgewerkschaften organisiert, welche auch unabhängig Tarifabschlüsse aushandeln können. Die sektoralen Gewerkschaftsorganisationen und die nationalen Dachverbände spielen eher eine koordinierende Rolle.

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